Does Bilingualism Improve Brain Function? Essay words - 13 pages. The results of the study indicate that the language in which word problems are stated affects how bilingual students apply their knowledge, procedures, and strategies for solving the problem, Bernardo,
Brown Green Blue Green Stimulus 3: Names of colors appeared in black ink: Names of colors in a different ink than the color named; and Squares of a given color.
The task required the participants to read the written color names of the words independently of the color of the ink for example, they would have to read "purple" no matter what the color of the font.
In experiment 2, stimulus conflict-words and color patches were used, and participants were required to say the ink-color of the letters independently of the written word with the second kind of stimulus and also name the color of the patches.
If the word "purple" was written in red font, they would have to say "red", rather than "purple". When the squares were shown, the participant spoke the name of the color. Stroop, in the third experiment, tested his participants at different stages of practice at the tasks and stimuli used in the first and second experiments, examining learning effects.
Stroop noted that participants took significantly longer to complete the color reading in the second task than they had taken to name the colors of the squares in Experiment 2. This delay had not appeared in the first experiment. Such interference were explained by the automation of reading, where the mind automatically determines the semantic meaning of the word it reads the word "red" and thinks of the color "red"and then must intentionally check itself and identify instead the color of the word the ink is a color other than reda process that is not automated.
Neutral stimuli are those stimuli in which only the text similarly to stimuli 1 of Stroop's experimentor color similarly to stimuli 3 of Stroop's experiment are displayed. Incongruent stimuli are those in which ink color and word differ.
It is called semantic interference since it is usually accepted that the relationship in meaning between ink color and word is at the root of the interference.
The third finding is that both semantic interference and facilitation disappear when the task consists of reading the word instead of naming the ink.
It has been sometimes called Stroop asynchrony, and has been explained by a reduced automatization when naming colors compared to reading words. The first experiment in Stroop's study reading words in black versus incongruent colors has been discussed less. In both cases, the interference score is expressed as the difference between the times needed to read each of the two types of cards.
Next, the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex selects the representation that will fulfil the goal. The relevant information must be separated from irrelevant information in the task; thus, the focus is placed on the ink color and not the word. Conversely, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex aims to reduce the attentional conflict and is activated after the conflict is over.
Activity in this region increases when the probability of an error is higher. This is based on the underlying notion that both relevant and irrelevant information are processed in parallel, but "race" to enter the single central processor during response selection. Processing speed[ edit ] This theory suggests there is a lag in the brain's ability to recognize the color of the word since the brain reads words faster than it recognizes colors.
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|Related Essays||Stroop effect This study evaluated the effect of congruency of color ink and color name on reading process. The 30 participants of the experiment were assigned to sets 1 a condition wherein congruent color names and ink color were presented first before the incongruent set of words, and 2 reverse of set 1 by random selection.|
In a condition where there is a conflict regarding words and colors e. Conversely, if the task is to report the word, because color information lags after word information, a decision can be made ahead of the conflicting information. The brain needs to use more attention to recognize a color than to encode a word, so it takes a little longer.
This may be a result of either an allocation of attention to the responses or to a greater inhibition of distractors that are not appropriate responses. Automaticity[ edit ] This theory is the most common theory of the Stroop effect.
This idea is based on the premise that automatic reading does not need controlled attention, but still uses enough attentional resources to reduce the amount of attention accessible for color information processing.A perfect demonstration of interference is the Stroop effect, a study focused on the time the brain reacts during a task.
This effect generally reveals that the majority of people read words impulsively and faster than naming colours/5(5).
stroop effect introduction and theories. Topics: John Ridley Stroop Stroop was concerned with how best to explain interference. Stroop had been engaged in studies of colour naming versus word reading and hit upon the idea of a compound stimulus where the word was incongruent with ink colour.
His two main questions were - what effect . Jan 01, · Stroop effects indexing inhibitory control ability (as marked by lower accuracy when ink colour and text did not match) were found across all three languages Skipping items is likely not related to the Stroop interference effect, since skipping does not occur in the most proficient language (but the Stroop effect does).
Instead. Below is an essay on "Stroop Effect and Interference" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. Stroop Effect and Interference Florida Atlantic University.
Related to this is the reversed Stroop effect that requires participants to report the printed word rather than the ink color that produces which also produced interference but wilt a lower level than the classical Stroop effect (Au, E. Chen, R.
Chen, & Wong, ). The Counting Stroop And The Interference Effect. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers. If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click.