This is the most controversial post I have ever written in ten years of blogging. I wrote it because I was very angry at a specific incident. Not meant as a criticism of feminism, so much as of a certain way of operationalizing feminism.
Since then, schools around the country have instituted programs designed to discourage alcohol and drug use among youth—most of them targeting older elementary schoolchildren and a few addressing adolescents. There is good reason for concern about youth substance abuse.
Johnston and his colleagues at the University of Michigan revealed that fully 24 percent of 12th graders had engaged in binge drinking defined as five or more drinks on one occasion in the past two weeks. Moreover, 42 percent had consumed at least some alcohol in the past month, as had 11 percent of eighth graders and 28 percent of high school sophomores.
In addition, 1 percent of 12th graders had tried methamphetamine, and almost 3 percent had used cocaine in the past year.
In an attempt to reduce these figures, substance abuse prevention programs often educate pupils regarding the perils of drug use, teach students social skills to resist peer pressure to experiment, and help young people feel that saying no is socially acceptable.
All the approaches seem sensible on the surface, so policy makers, teachers and parents typically assume they work. Yet it turns out that approaches involving social interaction work better than the ones emphasizing education.
That finding may explain why the most popular prevention program has been found to be ineffective—and may even heighten the use of some substances among teens. Rehearsing Refusal The most widely publicized teen substance abuse prevention program is Drug Abuse Resistance Education, better known by the acronym D.
In most cases, the officers do so once a week, typically for 45 to 60 minutes, for several months.
T-shirts, and police cars emblazoned with the word D. Despite this fanfare, data indicate that the program does little or nothing to combat substance use in youth.
A meta-analysis mathematical review in of 20 controlled studies by statisticians Wei Pan, then at the University of Cincinnati, and Haiyan Bai of the University of Central Florida revealed that teens enrolled in the program were just as likely to use drugs as were those who received no intervention.
A few clues to D. In a review of 30 studies published inshe attempted to pinpoint the common elements of successful programs. Cuijpers reported that the most effective ones involve substantial amounts of interaction between instructors and students.
They teach students the social skills they need to refuse drugs and give them opportunities to practice these skills with other students—for example, by asking students to play roles on both sides of a conversation about drugs, while instructors coach them about what to say and do. In addition, programs that work take into account the importance of behavioral norms: In a review of various substance abuse prevention programs, epidemiologist Melissa Stigler of the University of Texas School of Public Health and her colleagues buttressed these conclusions.
They further observed that programs that unfold during many sessions—ideally, over several years—garner especially strong results, probably because they provide students with lessons that are reinforced over time, as children mature and encounter different environments.
It typically lasts only months rather than years. Moreover, it affords students few opportunities to practice how to refuse offers of drugs. Indeed, Cuijpers noted that purely educational programs that involve minimal or no direct social interaction with other students are usually ineffective.
Programs led exclusively by adults, with little or no involvement of students as peer leaders—another common feature of D. Small negative effects for D. The reasons for these potential boomerang effects are unclear. Yet by emphasizing the hazards of severe drug abuse, D.
These scientific findings stand in stark contrast to the belief, held by scores of schoolteachers and parents, that D. One reason for this discrepancy, clinical psychologist Donald R.
Lynam, now at Purdue University, and his colleagues wrote in a article, is that teachers and parents may overestimate the prevalence of substance use among children. As a consequence, they may assume a decline in use when students of D.sweet flag / bitterroot Acorus calamus, A.
americanus. I probably know calamus more deeply than any other plant I’ve worked with, yet in spite of that (or perhaps because of it) I find it most difficult to capture what I know of it in a way that adequately conveys its essential nature; its medicine. Results from a new study may lead to approval of what could be the first drug that ameliorates potentially deadly reactions in children with severe peanut allergies.
Date rape drugs make a sexual assault, including rape easier in one or more ways, such as. making a victim more compliant and less able to say no; weakening a victim so they are unable to resist.
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