Rousseau left the city at the age of sixteen and came under the influence of a Roman Catholic convert noblewoman, Francoise-Louise de la Tour, Baronne de Warens.
His Political Philosophyparticularly his formulation of social contract theory or Contractarianismstrongly influenced the French Revolution and the development of LiberalConservative and Socialist theory. A brilliant, undisciplined and unconventional thinker throughout his colorful life, his views on Philosophy of Education and on religion were equally controversial but nevertheless influential.
He also made important contributions to music, both as a theorist and as a composer. Life Rousseau was born on 28 June in Geneva, Switzerland although he spent most of his life in France, he always described himself as a citizen of Geneva.
His mother, Suzanne Bernard, died just nine days after his birth from birth complications. His father, Isaac Rousseau, a failed watchmaker, abandoned him in when he was just 10 years old to avoid imprisonment, after which time Rousseau was cared for by an uncle who sent him to study in the village of Bosey.
His only sibling, an older brother, ran away from home when Rousseau was still a child. His childhood education consisted solely of reading the Plutarch's "Lives" and Calvinist sermons in a public garden.
His youthful experiences of corporal punishment at the hands of the pastor's sister developed in later life into a predilection for masochism and exhibitionism.
For several years as a youth, he was apprenticed to a Rousseau and experience in education and then to an engraver. She later became his lover, but she also provided him with the education of a nobleman by sending him to a good Catholic school, where Rousseau became familiar with Latin and the dramatic arts, in addition to studying Aristotle.
During this time he earned money through secretarial, teaching and musical jobs. Inhe moved to Paris with the intention of becoming a musician and composer. He was secretary to the French ambassador in Venice for 11 months from toalthough he was forced to flee to Paris to avoid prosecution by the Venetian Senate he often referred to the republican government of Venice in his later political work.
However, the friendship soon became strained and Diderot later described Rousseau as being "deceitful, vain as Satan, ungrateful, cruel, hypocritical and full of malice". His "Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts" "Discourse on the Arts and Sciences" won him first prize in an essay competition on whether or not the development of the arts and sciences had been morally beneficial, to which Rousseau had answered in the negative and gained him significant fame.
He was outspoken in his defense of Italian music against the music of popular French composers such as Jean-Philippe Rameau - Inhe returned to Geneva where he re-converted to Calvinism and regained his official Genevan citizenship.
However, it also caused him to gradually become estranged from his former friends such as Diderot and the Baron von Grimm and from benefactors such as Madame d'Epinay, although he continued to enjoy the support and patronage of one of the wealthiest nobles in France, the Duc de Luxembourg.
The books criticized religion and were banned in France and Geneva, and Rousseau was forced to flee. He returned to the southeast of France, incognito and under a false name, in One of the conditions of his return was that he was not allowed to publish any books, but after completing his "Confessions", Rousseau began private readings in He was ordered to stop by the police, and the "Confessions" was only partially published infour years after his death all his subsequent works were only to appear posthumously.
Rousseau died on 2 July of a hemorrhage while taking a morning walk on the estate of the Marquis de Giradin at Ermenonville, near Paris. Work Back to Top Rousseau saw a fundamental divide between society and human nature and believed that man was good when in the state of nature the state of all other animals, and the condition humankind was in before the creation of civilizationbut has been corrupted by the artificiality of society and the growth of social interdependence.
This idea of the natural goodness of humanity has often led to the attribution the idea of the "noble savage" to Rousseau, although he never used the expression himself and it does not adequately render his idea.
He did not, however, imply that humans in the state of nature necessarily acted morally in fact, terms such as 'justice' or 'wickedness' are simply inapplicable to pre-political society as Rousseau understood it. For Rousseau, society's negative influence on men centers on its transformation of "amour de soi" a positive self-love which he saw as the instinctive human desire for self-preservation, combined with the human power of reason into "amour-propre" a kind of artificial pride which forces man to compare himself to others, thus creating unwarranted fear and allowing men to take pleasure in the pain or weakness of others.
In "Discourse on the Arts and Sciences" Rousseau argued that the arts and sciences had not been beneficial to humankind because they were not human needs, but rather a result of pride and vanity.
Moreover, the opportunities they created for idleness and luxury contributed to the corruption of man, undermined the possibility of true friendship by replacing it with jealousy, fear and suspicionand made governments more powerful at the expense of individual liberty.
His subsequent "Discourse on Inequality" expanded on this theme and tracked the progress and degeneration of mankind from a primitive state of nature to modern society in more detail, starting from the earliest humans solitary beings, differentiated from animals by their capacity for free will and their perfectibility, and possessed of a basic drive to care for themselves and a natural disposition to compassion or pity.
Forced to associate together more closely by the pressure of population growth, man underwent a psychological transformation and came to value the good opinion of others as an essential component of their own well-being, which led to a golden age of human flourishing with the development of agriculture, metallurgy, private property and the division of labor but which also led to inequality.Rousseau and Experience in Education Rousseau strongly believed that the best method for raising children is to allow them to learn by themselves through experience in nature.
“He among us who best knows how to bear the goods and the ills of this life is to my taste the best raised. Rousseau's method could be applied in different departments of instruction, and founded at Dessau, in , an institution to bring that method within the domain of experience.
Rousseau and Experience in Education Rousseau strongly believed that the best method for raising children is to allow them to learn by themselves through experience in nature.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau ( - ) was a French philosopher and writer of the Age of Enlightenment. His Political Philosophy, particularly his formulation of social contract theory (or Contractarianism), strongly influenced the French Revolution and the development of Liberal, .
Jean Jacques Rousseau was an 18th century philosopher who later became known as a revolutionary philosopher on education and a forerunner of Romanticism. Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education.
His novel Émile was the most significant book on education after Plato’s Republic, and his other work had a profound impact on political theory and practice, romanticism and the development of the novel.