Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:
Select this link to see the table of contents for this issue.
Select this link to order this issure of ATF. Efforts to deal with these problems, however, have been handicapped by a real failure to understand their nature and possible remedies.
This pivotal work, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, had already brought a new perspective to the question of underdevelopment in Africa. His Marxist analysis went far beyond previously accepted approaches and changed the way both third world development and colonial history are studied. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa is classic of anti-imperialist literature. At the core is the concept of development and contemporary Marxism as the main theoretical underpinning. Both concept and theory is utilized to explore, evaluate and explain the historical exploitation and the damage done to African development. The African continent has come a long way during the last fifty years from a development perspective. Literacy levels, health sector, infrastructure, growth of GDP, food security, security among others, are some of the indicators .
Conventional wisdom views the people of this region as highly irresponsible toward the environment and looks to the international community to save them from themselves. Yet, there is no conclusive evidence that Africans have been particularly oblivious to the quality of the environment, nor has the international community Remedies to underdevelopment in africa any genuine concern for it until recently.
Clearly, protecting the environment of Sub-Saharan Africa is an issue that needs to be examined more carefully and incorporated into an overall strategy of sustainable economic development.
Formulating such a strategy will not be easy: In the closing years of the 20th century, virtually every country in this region is slipping on almost every index of development. The heady post-independence period of the s and early s, when development was considered simply a matter of following a plan formulated by Western experts, has now been succeeded by a time of fiscal crises and international marginalization.
The region now finds itself afflicted the consequences of inappropriate policies, as well as by almost endemic political instability, an inability to manage its economies effectively, and an increasingly hostile external economic milieu.
As simple survival has become more problematical, it has become increasingly difficult to avoid overexploiting natural resources and degrading the environment. Analysts are now concerned that this will compromise the prospects for sustainable development in the near future.
This will permit a detailed investigation of the environmental problems caused by humans in both rural and urban areas, along with a suggestive comparison between those problems and ones caused solely by nature. It will then be possible to look at the question of environmental protection in terms of sustainable development in the region and to suggest the roles that the state and international assistance ought to play.
The present situation offers an important opportunity to redirect development strategy in ways that will not only improve the social and economic well-being of people in this region but also enhance the quality of the environment in which they live. Factors Predisposing to Environmental Degradation Three factors strongly increase the threat of environmental degradation in sub-Saharan Africa: Throughout the region, the end of the colonial period saw a tremendous expansion of social services, especially in the areas of education and health care.
This led to a sharp decline in infant mortality and to a rapid increase n population. During the last 25 years, annual growth rates of 2. An increase of this magnitude within a relatively short time span implies a rising proportion of children in the population and thus a heavier burden on those who must care for them.
This has led to mass migration to the cities particularly by adult males and other efforts to supplement family income through non-farm employment. As a result, there has been less time for farm work, and more labor-saving but environmentally harmful shortcuts are being taken.
In forested areas, for instance, cleared land is used continuously, even though allowing it to lie fallow from time to time would result in greater productivity and less degradation.
In dryland regions, cultivation has been extended into marginal lands that are more easily cleared and cultivated. Turning to the second factor, countries in sub-Saharan Africa incurred large foreign debts in their efforts to industrialize and to provide their rapidly growing populations with modern social services.
Most of these loans have been long-term ones from official sources and on concessional terms; as the need for borrowing has become more urgent, however, countries have turned increasingly to private, short-term loans at market rates. High dependence on the export of primary products left sub-Saharan African countries vulnerable to the long decline of commodity prices that began in the s.
For some countries the decline has been even more pronounced. Between andthe total external debt rose from 27 percent to 97 percent of gross national product and from 97 percent to percent of exports. This has entailed not only a drastic compression of imports and a sharp devaluation of national currencies but also the retrenchment of a sizable portion of the wage- and salary-earning population.
As living conditions deteriorated, more people turned to survival agriculture, both in urban and rural areas.
At the same time, sharply rising prices for imported energy products forced many families to fall back on wood and charcoal for their domestic energy needs. Clearly, these developments put acute strain on the environment everywhere in the region.
The performance of most African governments in implementing the reforms necessary to turn their economies around has also been a source of serious concern.
The international community spent the years immediately following independence rationalizing and sometimes applauding the necessity for authoritarian one-party or military rule.This pivotal work, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, had already brought a new perspective to the question of underdevelopment in Africa.
His Marxist analysis went far beyond previously accepted approaches and changed the way both third world development and colonial history are studied. CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT AND CONCEPTS FOR DEVELOPMENT. AN INTRODUCTION TO DEVELOPMENT THEORIES By DR. FRITHJOF KUHNEN* The Journal of Institute of Development Development Studies, Studies, NWFP Agricultural Vol.
VIII, , University, Peshawar. INTRODUCTION. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, (Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, ).
Walter Rodney is the author of many pieces focusing on African studies, one of his most influential being How Europe Underdeveloped Africa. Rodney was born in Guyana, South America in where only thirty-eight years later he was assassinated by the .
Key Speeches & Articles Bottlenecks to Development in Africa.
There is no list of remedies attached to the bottlenecks. The first step is to accept that they are the bottlenecks and identify their source. These factors, identified here as the bottlenecks of development should be the ones blamed for the economic underdevelopment and.
Africa's political challenge: the politics and resilience of underdevelopment / Munyaradzi Mawere --Hearing the footfalls of humanoid robots: technoscience, (un-)employment and the future of "development" in twenty-first century Africa / Artwell Nhemachena --China for Africa, Africa for China or Africa and China for each other?
“If you look at the East African region, even more progress has been realised, for example, in the area of customs union, integration in the area of infrastructure that bring the countries of the East African Community together, whether it is telecommunication in the area of realising one area network, where there are no roaming charges,” Kagame was quoted by the New Times.