To provide some background, Engels was a social and political scientist, theorist and an economist as well as a veteran of the Prussian Army. Marx was university educated, holding a doctorate in philosophy Arthurand has been described as one of the fathers of modern social sciences Weber. Quite prophetic to the rest of this piece, Marx and Engels specifically state that past the names of classes, be they the upper class or loser class, the rich or the poor, or the knight or the serf, the struggle of class is more and more developing into the ideology of the 'haves' versus the 'have nots. Over time, the powerful and the wealthy have gained access and control to the means and modes of the production in industry, and thus, have control of the world — which they control for a means to an end:
See also, Friedrich Engels Criticism. Early intwo young German intellectuals set forth their plan for proletarian revolution against the prevailing socio-economic forces in Europe, which in their eyes were corrupt. Manifest der kommunistischen Partei The Communist Manifestothe slim volume outlining their plan, has been described as the most influential secular document in world history, ranked behind only such religious works as the Bible and the Koran for the impact it has had on world events.
Calling for workers of the world to unite, The Communist Manifesto examines the oppression felt by the working class in Europe, analyzes the unequal distribution of wealth under the capitalist system, and provides a vision for a new way of life, wherein the proletariat fights for and wins economic and social equality with the ruling bourgeois class.
With the Russian Revolution in the early part of the twentieth century, The Communist Manifesto was catapulted from being Critique of the communist manifesto essay important philosophical text to being the framework for a new nation. Communism and the Soviet Union, both of which have their birth in this text, went on to become globally polarizing forces.
The Cold War can be considered a result, in large part, of the diametrically opposed socio-economic philosophies held by the communist East and the capitalist West. Textual History The first step to understanding the The Communist Manifesto is to understand its authors.
Karl Marx, who is generally considered the primary author of both the text and the philosophy that has come to bear his name, was born in Germany in He received a university education, studying law and then philosophy.
Shortly after he received his degree, his anti-bourgeois sentiment growing, he realized he could not participate in the German education system. He turned to journalism—a pursuit that would help support him for the rest of his life.
In this capacity he began developing his revolutionary ideas, until he was forced out of Germany in For the next several years his involvement with revolutionary, anti-capitalist organizations increased and he continued to develop his theories by studying economic science and pursuing literary study.
In he met Friedrich Engels.
Engels grew up in the same area of Germany as Marx, and came from a similar class and educational experience. Sent by his father to England to represent the family in its textile business, Engels observed first-hand the exploitation of textile workers, and the injustice of the industrial capitalist system.
Independently, both men published critical works that questioned the existing European socio-economic system, but upon their meeting inthey found in each other not only a lifelong friendship, but an intellectual partnership that would take them both to new philosophical heights.
In The Communist Manifesto the authors put forth a theory of history, an analysis of capitalism, and an outline for socialism. Their call for proletarian revolution was met with interest from other disaffected bourgeois intellectuals, hope from the increasingly mobilized working class, and fear from the supporters of the existing system.
The manifesto was quickly translated and published in most European languages. It gave birth to modern Socialism, and helped change the world order; it was espoused by revolutionaries across Europe, and saw its greatest victory in with the Russian Revolution.
Marx and Engels continued to hone and develop their socialist theories, and both went on to publish prolifically on the subject. Numerous essays, lectures, and articles picked up where The Communist Manifesto left off. While the specifics of their proletarian revolution were to change as the social, economic and political climates changed, Marx and Engels always maintained the accuracy of the ideas put forth in The Communist Manifesto.
Upon its fortieth anniversary, Engels decided that the preface could no longer be revised, as the text was then an historical document and needed to be preserved as such.
Theories of socialism and communism continued to evolve, but the The Communist Manifesto was a finalized text. It went through no further revisions at the hands of its authors, but its influence did not lessen, as the Socialist and Communist movements of the twentieth century held to its ideals and built new societies from its revolutionary plan.
Major Themes Divided into four parts, The Communist Manifesto begins with a theory of world history based on class struggles, and provides an explanation of the abuse of the working class by the bourgeoisie.
The evils perpetrated upon the working class—the proletariat—are enumerated, and the injustice of the capitalist economic system, whereby a few get rich off the labor of many, is outlined.
In the second section of The Communist Manifesto the virtues of communism are portrayed.The Communist Manifesto itself is a review of theory and policy that opens with the phrase “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” (Arthur ).
The Communist Manifesto Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx. The following entry presents criticism of Engels and Marx's political pamphlet, Manifest der kommunistischen Partei (; The Communist.
Check Out Our Communist Manifesto Essay In the Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx critiques capitalism as not benefiting the Proletariat class at all.
According to Marx, Proletarian are exploited through basic pay low wages work and the working classes unable to afford property even through work so hard.
Communist Manifesto The Alienation of the Proletariat: An Explanation and Critique of Marx's Theory of Estranged Labor Claudia Kelley College In a colloquial context, a state of ‘alienation’ is one in which an individual is excluded or isolated from a group with whom that individual belongs or should be involved (Merriam-Webster, ).
Essays and criticism on Friedrich Engels, Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto - Critical Essays. Communist Manifesto Essay; Communist Manifesto Essay. Assignment No.
3: Critique of the Communist Manifesto Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels' Communist Manifesto is one of the world's most influential pieces of political literature.
The manifesto was created for the purpose of outlining the aims and goals of the "The Communist League".
|Navigate Guide||Yet, on the whole, he never really discusses much what Communism is as much as he derides Capitalism and the many faults that he has with other Socialist systems.|
|SUMMARY AND CRITIQUE OF THE COMM||See also, Friedrich Engels Criticism.|