What the Board expects you to know: Risk factors in the development of addiction, including genetic vulnerability, stress, personality, family influences and peers.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Gambling is a widespread form of entertainment that may afford unique insights into the interaction between cognition and emotion in human decision-making.
It is also a behaviour that can become harmful, and potentially addictive, in a minority of individuals. This article considers the status of two dominant approaches to gambling behaviour.
The cognitive approach has identified a number of erroneous beliefs held by gamblers, which cause them to over-estimate their chances of winning. The psychobiological approach has examined case-control differences between groups of pathological gamblers and healthy controls, and has identified dysregulation of brain areas linked to reward and emotion, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex vmPFC and striatum, as well as alterations in dopamine neurotransmission.
In integrating these two approaches, recent data are discussed that reveal anomalous recruitment of the brain reward system including the vmPFC and ventral striatum during two common cognitive distortions in gambling games: In games of chance, near-misses and the presence of control have no objective influence on the likelihood of winning.
These manipulations appear to harness a reward system that evolved to learn skill-oriented behaviours, and by modulating activity in this system, these cognitive distortions may promote continued, and potentially excessive, gambling. Introduction The term gambling refers to a form of entertainment where a wager, typically a sum of money, is placed on the uncertain prospect of a larger monetary outcome.
The British Gambling Prevalence Survey found that 68 per cent of respondents reported gambling at least once in the past year, and 48 per cent reported gambling on games other than the state lottery Wardle et al.
This refers to the fact that gambling odds are carefully arranged to ensure a steady profit for the bookmaker, casino or slot machine; something that can only be achieved at the expense of the gambler. In economic terms, the expected value of gambling is negative, such that an accumulating debt is inevitable over a large number of trials.
Thus, the widespread tendency to accept such gambles may provide some useful insights into the mechanisms of human irrationality. However, in addition to the financial considerations, it is probable that gambling is also motivated by cognitive and emotional factors. Unpredictable monetary wins are a potent form of positive reinforcement that strengthen the instrumental response.
Gambling may also serve to alleviate unpleasant states of boredom, anxiety or low mood i. Gambling is also a behaviour that can spiral out of control in some individuals. As gambling becomes excessive, there are observable harms including debt, illegal activity and interpersonal conflict.
In its most extreme form, pathological gambling is a recognized psychiatric diagnosis in the Diagnostic and statistical manual, version 4 text revision DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Associationwith a prevalence of around 1 per cent Petry et al. The US prevalence of problem gambling is estimated between 1 and 4 per cent Shaffer et al.
Accumulating data point to a re-alignment of pathological gambling within the addictions Potenza The diagnostic criteria themselves were closely modelled on the features of substance dependence, and there is evidence of cravings Tavares et al.
In addition to clinical phenomenology, several other lines of evidence indicate aetiological overlap between problem gambling and drug addiction: The critical difference is that problem gambling does not involve the ingestion of a psychoactive substance.
Long-term drug administration causes an array of changes in the brain, so that in current users, it is difficult to disentangle the mechanisms by which the addiction developed. Research into gambling behaviour can therefore address two broad issues.
First, given the general prevalence of this behaviour, what does gambling tell us about the fallibility of decision-making mechanisms in the healthy human brain? Second, from a clinical perspective, how does this common recreational behaviour become dysfunctional?
An overarching theory of gambling should be able to explain both its general popularity, and its potential to become pathological. The aim of the present article is to integrate two approaches to gambling behaviour that have gained considerable popularity in recent years, but which are rarely linked and command quite separate research literatures.
The cognitive approach emphasizes thought content and a distorted appraisal of control during gambling. The psychobiological approach assumes a disease model of problem gambling, and has sought to identify group differences between pathological gamblers and healthy controls on measures of brain chemistry and brain function.
I will provide an overview of the current status of each approach, before reviewing recent findings that suggest a synthesis of the two approaches may be warranted. Several kinds of erroneous beliefs have been identified Toneatto et al. In believing that they are acquiring the necessary skills to win or even that such skills exist in principlethe gambler is able to justify continued play.
In this paradigm, the gambler is asked to verbalize all thoughts during a brief period of gambling in a naturalistic setting, such as a casino. They are encouraged to speak continuously and to avoid censoring their speech. Their speech output is recorded by the experimenter, and statements are categorized subsequently as accurate e.
High rates of erroneous thoughts were even present in players who were clearly aware that the outcomes were determined by chance, given their responses on a questionnaire administered before and after the gambling session.
A number of studies support this Walker ; Griffiths ; Baboushkin et al. Using the think-aloud procedure, Griffiths found that regular at least once per week fruit machine players reported more erroneous thoughts than non-regular players less than once per month. In addition, a programme of research by Ladouceur et al.
At a psychological level, it is important to understand how these faulty beliefs develop, in both occasional and problem gamblers. There appear to be at least two mechanisms at work.Addictive behaviour: cognitive approach Learning approach:gambling AO1 Initiation Self Medication (Gelkopf et al) Propose that individuals use different forms of pathological behaviour (such as gambling) to treat the psychological symptoms which they have.
cognitive explanation of gambling. gamblers have expectations about the future benefits and costs of their behaviour. if they expect the benefits of gambling to . Nov 16, · If blurry, go to your settings & alter to your highest quality (eg ) This is a Mrs H Psychology video for AQA A level students of Psychology, covering the Addiction topic: Cognitive explanation.
Cognitive explanation of gambling addiction No surprises from the cognitive perspective either. This approach always emphasizes the importance of perceptions and thinking as well as schemas. In its simplest form the cognitive approach assumes that addiction is due to irrational beliefs.
For example regular gamblers have the irrational belief. PSYA4 - Addiction - Cognitive () Choice of an explanation for an addiction (could specify the addiction) Evaluation of Cognitive explanation - Gambling 1.
Real world application as there is implications for possible treatment. If people are gambling to cope with stress, then stress management techniques can help to manage this.
A number of recent studies have shown there may be a strong cognitive bias in explaining persistent gambling. Theories that have been put forward include the illusion of control, “cognitive regret,” biased evaluations and the “psychology of the near miss.” Two exploratory studies examining.