Banyarwanda, Banyamulenge, Bafumbira Orientation Identification. The Rwandan culture includes not only the population of Rwanda but people in neighboring states, particularly Congo and Uganda, who speak the Kinyarwanda language.
Neolithic to the Middle Ages[ edit ] Twa women with traditional pottery. The territory of present-day Rwanda has been green and fertile for many thousands of years, even during the last ice agewhen part of Nyungwe Forest was fed by the alpine ice sheets of the Rwenzoris.
The exact nature of the third major immigration, that of a predominantly pastoralist people known as Tutsiis highly contested. Kingdom of Rwanda By the 15th century, many of the Bantu-speakers, including both Hutu and Tutsi, had organized themselves into small states.
According to Ogot,  these included at least three. The oldest state, which has no name, was probably established by the Renge lineages of the Singa clan and covered most of modern Rwanda, besides the northern region.
The Mubari state of the Zigaba Abazigaba clan also covered an extensive area. The Gisaka state in southeast Rwanda was powerful, maintaining its independence until the midth century.
However, the latter two states are largely unmentioned in contemporary discussion of Rwandan civilization.
In the 19th century, the state became far more centralized, and the history far more precise. Expansion continued, reaching the shores of Lake Kivu. This expansion was less about military conquest and more about a migrating population spreading Rwandan agricultural techniques, social organization, and the extension of the political control of a Mwami.
Once this was established camps of warriors were established along the vulnerable borders to prevent incursions. Only against other well developed states such as GisakaBugeseraand Burundi was expansion carried out primarily by force of arms. The King was treated as a semi-divine being, responsible for making the country prosper.
The symbol of the King was the Kalinga, the sacred drum.
It was between these estates that the Mwami and his retinue would travel. All the people of Rwanda were expected to pay tribute to the Mwami; it was collected by a Tutsi administrative hierarchy.
The cattle chief collected tribute in livestock, and the land chief collected tribute in produce.
Beneath these chiefs were hill-chiefs and neighborhood chiefs. Also important were military chiefs, who had control over the frontier regions. They played both defensive and offensive roles, protecting the frontier and making cattle raids against neighboring tribes.
Often, the Rwandan great chief was also the army chief. Lastly, the biru or "council of guardians" was also an important part of the administration. The Biru advised the Mwami on his duties where supernatural king-powers were involved.
These honored people advised also on matters of court ritual. Located in the border camps, the military were a mix of Hutu and Tutsi drawn from across the kingdom. This intermixing helped produce a uniformity of ritual and language in the region, and united the populace behind the Mwami.
Most evidence suggests that relations between the Hutu and Tutsi were mostly peaceful at this time. Some words and expressions suggest there may have been friction, but other than that evidence supports peaceful interaction.
A traditional local justice system called Gacaca predominated in much of the region as an institution for resolving conflict, rendering justice and reconciliation.
The Tutsi king was the ultimate judge and arbiter for those cases that reached him. Despite the traditional nature of the system, harmony and cohesion had been established among Rwandans and within the kingdom since the beginning of Rwanda.
Likewise Hutu who obtained cattle would come to be considered Tutsi, thus climbing the ladder of the social strata. This social mobility ended abruptly with the onset of colonial administration.
Rather the region was divided in an conference in Brussels. This gave Rwanda and Burundi to the German Empire as colonial spheres of interest in exchange for renouncing all claims on Uganda.
The poor maps referenced in these agreements left Belgium with a claim on the western half of the country; after several border skirmishes the final borders of the colony were not established until These borders contained the kingdom of Rwanda as well as a group of smaller kingdoms on the shore of Lake Victoria.
There was a rebellion and the family was killed.
Yuhi Musinga inherited the throne through his mother and uncles, but there was still dissent. German East Africa — [ edit ] Further information: With only 2, soldiers in East AfricaGermany hardly changed the social structures in much of the region, especially in Rwanda.
The Rwandans were divided; a portion of the royal court was wary and the other thought the Germans might be a good alternative to dominance by Buganda or the Belgians [ citation needed ].Subtitle: History tells a very stark picture as to what happens when a government successfully confiscates the guns of their people.
You will realize that our concerns about current efforts to make gun ownership illegal are well rooted in modern history. The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government. An estimated , to 1,, Rwandans were killed during the day period from 7 April to mid-July , constituting as many as 70% of the Tutsi population.
. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Rwanda traces its origins to one of the many small kingdoms that emerged in the Great Lakes region . Flora lost 17 members of her family in the Rwandan genocide.
She only survived because she passed out among a pile of bodies The story of why the US government and Clinton as President did not become involved. Author Linda Melvern is quizzed over details she reveals in a new book about how the Rwanda genocide was organized.
The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). We read every letter or e-mail we receive, and we will convey your comments to CIA officials outside OPA as appropriate. Rwanda, Africa 1°′S 30°′E. Rwanda is a poor, rural country located in south-central Africa.
With 80% of its population struggling to make it by with mainly subsistence agriculture, the genocide decimated their already fragile economic base.